Impaired naming difficulty is common in normal elderly as well as in patients with neurological impairment. The 60-item Korean version-Boston Naming Test(K-BNT) is one of the most commonly used test for measuring confrontational naming ability. However, age-related cognitive decline may make the elderly difficult concentrating during the 60-item test, therefore, item reduction of the K-BNT would improve test validity and reliability. Thus, the purpose of this study was to develop a short form of the K-BNT based on Item Response Theory(IRT). Considering item-fit index, sex factor, and item difficulty through Rasch analysis, the 15-item K-BNT(i.e., K-BNT-15) was developed. Via administration of the K-BNT-15, we observed age-related decline in naming ability and significantly different performance between the normal elderly and patients with mild cognitive impairment. This study demonstrates the utility of IRT for developing a short-form language evaluation tool. The K-BNT-15 can be effective as a language screening tool to differentiate between normal aging and pathological diseases.