In Korea, two kinds of National oral health surveys have been conducted to develop various oral health indices during the past decade. The system still needs to be improved further in terms of quality control for the examination system, data management, personnel empowerment, etc. Therefore, this study compares the National Oral Health Survey system of the United States (US) with that of South Korea. The US national surveys related to oral health were set from the 1970s, whereas Korea's national surveys have been initiated only recently; consequently, the US system is well organized and systematically managed by the professional personnel in governmental institutes, such as the Division of Oral Health in Centers for Disease Control. Furthermore, this study examines the scope of the examiner training program, and the methods for developing and implementing a standardized examination environment, data quality control, a data input system with automatic error checking, and data back up in the US. Considering the various factors involved in conducting nationwide epidemiological surveys as mentioned above, the structure and implementation methods of oral surveys in Korea clearly need to be improved.