Biological Advantages of Porous Hydroxyapatite Scaffold Made by Solid Freeform Fabrication for Bone Tissue Regeneration
Byeong-Ju Kwon ; Jungsung Kim ; Jong-Chul Park ; Min-Ah Koo ; Soon-Young Kwon ; Min Hyeon Lee ; Hyok Jin Seo ; Hye-Lee Kim ; Dae Hyung Lee ; Hyun Sook Baek ; Mi Hee Lee ; Yong Hwa Kim
Artificial Organs, Vol.37(7) : 663~670, 2013
Presently, commercially available porous bone substitutes are manufactured by the sacrificial template method, direct foaming method, and polymer replication method (PRM). However, current manufacturing methods provide only the simplest form of the bone scaffold and cannot easily control pore size. Recent developments in medical imaging technology, computer-aided design, and solid freeform fabrication (SFF), have made it possible to accurately produce porous synthetic bone scaffolds to fit the defected bone shape. Porous scaffolds were fabricated by SFF and PRM for a comparison of physical and mechanical properties of scaffold. The suggested three-dimensional model has interconnected cubic pores of 500 μm and its calculated porosity is 25%. Whereas hydroxyapatite scaffolds fabricated by SFF had connective macropores, those by PRM formed a closed pore external surface with internally interconnected pores. SFF was supposed to be a proper method for fabricating an interconnected macroporous network. Biocompatibility was confirmed by testing the cytotoxicity, hemolysis, irritation, sensitization, and implantation. In summary, the aim was to verify the safety and efficacy of the scaffolds by biomechanical and biological tests with the hope that this research could promote the feasibility of using the scaffolds as a bone substitute.