The Nightsoil Worker’s Daily life and Health Reform in Beijing Under Japanese Occupation(1937-1945)
중국학보, Vol.67 : 159~181, 2013
This paper examined the nightsoil worker``s daily life and the changes of life in Beijing under Japanese occupation. After the Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, Japanese troops occupied Beijing, and they established Beijing metropolitan municipality on December 1937. Beijing metropolitan municipality succeeded to the health administration of Beiping municipality, and had to accept the changes under Japanese occupation. In spite of the health reform of Beiping municipality, nightsoil worker still extorted money from citizen or participated in the slowdown under Japanese occupation. Beijing metropolitan municipality needed new policy on the disposal of nightsoil, because the disposal of nightsoil as emerged the important matter. After the Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, the nightsoil business in Beijing changed from the official supervision and merchant management into the private management of the nightsoil business. Beijing metropolitan municipality prepared the official management of the nightsoil business to solve nightsoil trouble. As the living costs in Beijing increased, the living of the nightsoil worker gradually deteriorated. The nightsoil worker in Beijing was estimated to be suffered from tuberculosis, respiratory diseases, and other gastrointestinal diseases in 1940s. They also suffered from STD, varicose veins, and trachoma. The Japanese occupation authorities set up a civilian organization, NPA, to disseminate pro-Japanese ideological propaganda and keep the public order. The NPA organized occupational associations such as the nightsoil worker``s occupational association to conduct pro-Japanese propaganda and improve the quality of nightsoil worker``s lives. Because the nightsoil worker suffered from daily life and disease, they welcomed the NPA``s activity.