Purpose: The aim of this study is to retrospectively investigate the effect of smoking on early implant failure and bone remodeling around implants and to evaluate the peri-implant tissue condition regarding smoking duration and implant position.
Materials and Methods: The data of 241 implants among 144 patients were analyzed. Patients were divided into 3 groups depending on the duration of smoking: non-smokers, less than 10 years and more than 10 years. All implants were investigated clinically and radiographically at loading time and at 1 year later. Fisher’s exact test and Mann-Whitney U-test were performed to analyze the implant survival, success rate and marginal bone loss.
Results: No implant was removed and the overall survival rate was 100%. The mean bone loss was higher during the first year after loading in the smoking groups rather than in the non-smoking group. Patients who have been smoking for more than 10 years or who have maxilla-placed implants showed more marginal bone loss compared to the other groups. Implant success rate showed reverse tendency with marginal bone loss.
Conclusion: Although smokers are not more prone to lose implant, more marginal bone loss and lower implant success rate were observed, especially in long term heavy smokers and maxilla area.