Emergence and global spread of epidemic healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile
Miao He ; Julian Parkhill ; Gordon Dougan ; Brendan W Wren ; Peter Hawkey ; Ed Kuijper ; Munir Pirmohamed ; Mark Wilcox ; Glen Songer ; Tom Riley ; Nick M Brown ; Sharon J Peacock ; Emma Butt ; Stephen Michell ; Tom Louie ; Mitsutoshi Senoh ; Haru Kato ; Tse Hsien Koh ; Hee Jung Kim ; Dale Gerding ; Gill Douce ; John E Coia ; Derek Brown ; Jon Brazier ; Stephanie D'Arc ; Kathleen B Bamford ; Derek Fairley ; Simon R Harris ; Thomas R Connor ; Melissa J Martin ; Derek J Pickard ; Louise Ellison ; Paul Roberts ; Fabio Miyajima ; Trevor D Lawley
Nature Genetics, Vol.45(1) : 109~155, 2013
Epidemic C. difficile (027/BI/NAP1) has rapidly emerged in the past decade as the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea worldwide. However, the key events in evolutionary history leading to its emergence and the subsequent patterns of global spread remain unknown. Here, we define the global population structure of C. difficile 027/BI/NAP1 using whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. We show that two distinct epidemic lineages, FQR1 and FQR2, not one as previously thought, emerged in North America within a relatively short period after acquiring the same fluoroquinolone resistance-conferring mutation and a highly related conjugative transposon. The two epidemic lineages showed distinct patterns of global spread, and the FQR2 lineage spread more widely, leading to healthcare-associated outbreaks in the UK, continental Europe and Australia. Our analysis identifies key genetic changes linked to the rapid transcontinental dissemination of epidemic C. difficile 027/BI/NAP1 and highlights the routes by which it spreads through the global healthcare system.