Health risk assessment of exposure to chlorpyrifos and dichlorvos in children at childcare facilities
Ho-Hyun Kim ; Young-Wook Lim ; Jae-Young Lee ; Byung-Soon Choi ; Hyun-Sook Ham ; Dong-Chun Shin ; Ji-Yeon Yang
Science of the Total Environment, Vol.444(null) : 441~450, 2013
Science of the Total Environment
The present study evaluated 168 childcare facilities from 6 cities in South Korea to assess exposure to organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) in children through 4 major pathways (indoor air, indoor dust, surface wipe of indoor objects, and hand wash water of children). The Excess Cancer Risk (ECR) was calculated based on the Cancer Potency Factor (CPF) and Age Dependent Adjustment Factor (ADAF) in adults. Dichlorvos residues were detected in the indoor air, indoor dust, surface wipes of indoor objects, and the hand wash water of children at frequencies of 47.4, 90, 100, and 100%, respectively. After revision based on the ADAF, total cancer risk in the 50th percentile was 3.99 × 10− 3 for inhalation, oral intake, and dermal contact in children ages 3 to 4 and 4.63 × 10− 4 in kindergarteners ages 5 to 6. Inhalation was the primary pathway of pesticide exposure in children in childcare facilities. Children ages 3 to 4 in daycare centers had a Hazard Quotient (HQ) of 0.5 for dichlorvos, which was 50% lower than the risk criterion level of 1 but was higher than the 95% percentile with a HQ of 1.9. This study postulates that children in childcare facilities may be exposed to specific OPs.