Time- and dose-dependent cytotoxicities of ioxitalamate and indigocarmine in human nucleus pulposus cells
Kyung-Hyun Kim ; Young-Sung Kim ; Yong-Eun Cho ; Keun-Su Kim ; Dong-Kyu Chin ; Jeong-Yoon Park ; Hyo-Suk Park ; Sung-Uk Kuh
Spine Journal, Vol.13(5) : 564~571, 2013
Ioxitalamate (Telebrix 300) is an ionic iodinated contrast medium commonly used for discography or percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD), though it has side effects such as anaphylactic shock and renal toxicity. Indigocarmine is an organic compound dye with a distinctive blue color that is commonly used during PELD to stain the acidic, degenerated nucleus pulposus (NP). Although ioxitalamate and indigocarmine are widely used in spinal surgery, there have been no reports on their effects on NP cells. We studied the toxicities of both ioxitalamate and indigocarmine to NP cells.
To determine the toxicities of both ioxitalamate and indigocarmine to NP cells in vitro.
In vitro, controlled study of the toxicities of both ioxitalamate and indigocarmine to human NP cells.
Nucleus pulposus cells were obtained via discectomy from lumbar disc patients and isolated. Nucleus pulposus cells were cultured in three-dimensional (3D) alginate beads with 0.001, 0.1, 10, and 100 mg/mL ioxitalamate, 0.00001, 0.001, 0.1, and 10 mg/mL indigocarmine, or a mixture of both for 1, 2, or 3 days. The living cells were analyzed with trypan blue staining. Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting analysis using Annexin V and propidium iodide and 3D alginate bead immunostaining was performed to identify live, apoptotic, and necrotic cells.
Ioxitalamate, indigocarmine, and their combination induced statistically significant NP cell injury that was both time- and dose dependent (p<.05). Also, at the same concentration, ioxitalamate was more cytotoxic than was indigocarmine or the combination (p<.05). All three treatments also showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity according to flow cytometry and immunostaining.
Ioxitalamate and indigocarmine are toxic to human NP cells in vitro in a time- and dose-dependent manner. We assume that ioxitalamate and indigocarmine may have similar effects in patients undergoing discography and PELD. Thus, we suggest that ioxitalamate and indigocarmine should be used carefully at low concentrations.