This study was performed to assess the efficacy of beraprost sodium (BPS) in painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. In this randomized clinical trial, 99 T2DM patients (41% male, age 60 ± 6 years) with DPN but without evidence of peripheral artery disease were randomized to receive either BPS (40 µg, tid) or placebo for 8 weeks. The primary end point was the improvement of the total symptom score (TSS), temperature rebound (TR) and nadir to peak (NP) above baseline. After 8 weeks treatment, the change of TSS in the BPS group showed a significant improvement compared to the placebo group (2.80 ± 2.48 vs. 1.60 ± 1.94 points, p = 0.009). Furthermore, the number of patients who showed signs of improvement in TSS and the proportion of patients with 50% relief of symptom was also significantly greater in the BPS group than in the placebo group (83.7 vs. 62%, p = 0.015, 36.2 vs. 14%, p = 0.009, respectively). In conclusion, treatment with BPS significantly improved TSS over an 8-week period.