Journal of Periodontology, Vol.72(1) : 43~49, 2001
The purpose of the present parallel design, controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the treatment outcome following flap debridement surgery (FDS) in cigarette smokers compared to non-smokers.
After initial therapy, 57 systemically healthy subjects with moderate to advanced periodontitis who presented with one area (at least 3 teeth) where surgery was required were selected. Twenty-eight patients (mean age: 39.6 years, 20 males) were smokers (> or = 10 cigarettes/day); 29 patients (mean age: 43.9 years, 7 males) were non-smokers. Full-mouth plaque (FMP) and bleeding on probing (BOP) scores, probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and recession depth (RD) were assessed immediately before and 6 months following surgery. Only sites with presurgery PD > or = 4 mm were used for statistical analysis.
Presurgery FMP and BOP were similar in smokers and non-smokers and significantly decreased postsurgery in both groups. Overall, PD reduction and CAL gain were greater, although not significantly, in non-smokers (2.4 +/- 0.9 mm and 1.6 +/- 0.7 mm, respectively) than in smokers (1.9 +/- 0.7 mm and 1.2 +/- 0.7 mm, respectively). For moderate sites (PD 4 to 6 mm), no significant differences in PD and CAL changes were found between groups. For deep sites (PD > or = 7 mm), PD reduction was 3.0 +/- 1.0 mm in smokers and 4.0 +/- 0.8 mm in non-smokers, and CAL gain amounted to 1.8 +/- 1.1 mm in smokers and 2.8 +/- 1.0 mm in non-smokers (P = 0.0477). In smokers, 16% of deep sites healed to postsurgery PD values < or = 3 mm as compared to 47% in non-smokers (P = 0.0000); 58% of deep sites in smokers showed a CAL gain > or = 2 mm, as compared to 82% in non-smokers (P = 0.0000).
Results of the study indicated that: 1) FDS determined a statistically significant PD reduction and CAL gain in patients with moderate to advanced periodontitis; 2) smokers exhibited a trend towards less favorable healing response following FDS compared to non-smokers, both in terms of PD reduction and CAL gain; and 3) this trend reached clinical and statistical significance at sites with initial deep PD.