Mechanism of refractory ceramic fiber- and rock wool-induced cytotoxicity in alveolar macrophages.
K.-A. Kim ; W. K. Lee ; Y. Chung ; S.-H. Lee ; G. Chae ; K.-H. Lee ; Y. Lim ; M.-S. Seo ; J. K. Kim
International Archives of Occupational and Environemental Health, Vol.74(1) : 9~15, 2001
International Archives of Occupational and Environemental Health
Man-made vitreous fibers (MMVFs) can induce cytotoxicity in a way similar to that of other particles, including silica and asbestos fibers. However, as yet the mechanism of MMVF-induced cytotoxicity is still not clear. This report aims to clarify the mechanism of MMVF-induced cytotoxicity in the alveolar macrophage (AM). In this mechanism, an attempt to prove the involvement of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation system and the polyinosinic acid-inhibitable scavenger receptors was made.
Several parameters were observed for cytotoxicity, such as cell viability, the release of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and ATP levels in rat AM's that were treated with refractory ceramic fibers (RF2) and rock wool (RW1). A specially designed ATP generation system was used to determine the effect of MMVF on ATP generation. A scavenger receptor ligand was applied to evaluate the relationship between scavenger receptors and MMVF-induced ATP depletion.
A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay indicated that both RF2 and RW1 caused a decrease in cell viability and this decrease was concentration-dependent. RF2 and RW1 increased the release of LDH with increasing fiber concentration. From these parameters, RF2 was shown to exhibit greater cytotoxicity than did RW1. Both fibers decreased the intracellular ATP content and this decrease was concentration-dependent. The decrease was more pronounced in RW1 than in RF2 at all fiber concentrations. These fibers suppressed succinate-triggered oxygen consumption. Polyinosinic acid, a ligand of the scavenger receptor, inhibited the MMVF-induced decrease in ATP concentration.
These results suggest that RF2 and RW1 can induce cytotoxicity and ATP depletion in the AM through the polyinosinic acid-inhibitable scavenger receptor. ATP depletion was the important factor in MMVF cytotoxicity, especially by RW1.