Apathy and olfactory dysfunction in early Parkinson's disease
Jin Yong Hong ; Mun Kyung Sunwoo ; Young H Sohn ; Phil Hyu Lee ; Jae Jung Lee ; Jee Hyun Ham
Journal of Movement Disorders, Vol.8(1) : 21~25, 2015
Journal of Movement Disorders
OBJECTIVE: Olfactory and emotional dysfunctions are very common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Olfaction and emotions share common neuroanatomical substrates. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the association between olfactory and emotional dysfunctions in patients with PD.
METHODS: Parkinson's disease patients who had been assessed for their olfactory function and neuropsychiatric symptoms including emotional dysfunction were included. A logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between low olfaction and different neuropsychiatric symptoms.
RESULTS: The patients with low olfaction (cross cultural smell identification test score ≤ 6) showed a higher prevalence of apathy when compared with those with high olfaction, whereas the frequencies of other neuropsychiatric symptoms were comparable between the two groups. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence of apathy/indifference [odds ratio (OR) = 2.859, p = 0.007], age 70 years or more (OR = 2.281, p = 0.009), and the male gender (OR = 1.916, p = 0.030) were significantly associated with low olfaction.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that apathy/indifference is a unique emotional dysfunction associated with olfactory dysfunction in PD. The findings also suggest that PD patients with low olfaction have a high prevalence of apathy.