Incidence of and risk factors for infectious complications in patients with cardiac device implantation
Hea Won Ann ; Jin Young Ahn ; Jun Yong Choi ; June Myung Kim ; Sang Hoon Han ; Nam Su Ku ; MoonHyoung Lee ; Boyoung Joung ; Su Jin Jeong ; In Young Jung ; Yong Duk Jeon
International Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol.36 : 9~14, 2015
International Journal of Infectious Diseases
OBJECTIVES: The use of cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED; pacemakers, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators [ICD], cardiac re-synchronized therapy [CRT]) implantation, one essential treatment for cardiac arrhythmias, is increasing. Infectious complications related to implants are the main reason for device removal and patient morbidity. We sought to identify the incidence of infectious complications among patients with cardiac device implantation and analyze the risk factors for infectious complications.
METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted of 1307 patients (61.5±14.2 years-old, 49.6% male) with cardiac device implantation from January 1990 to April 2013. We analyzed the incidence of infectious complications during the follow-up period. To investigate risk factors associated with infectious complications, we conducted a 1:2 matched case-control study of patients with infectious complications and controls without infectious complications who had the same implantation period and physician.
RESULTS: Among 1307 patients, 12 had a confirmed device-related infection: 7 with a pocket infection and 5 with infective endocarditis. Over a total of 9091.9 device-years, the incidence of infectious complications was 1.3/1000 device-years, based on the 12 patients with an infection. ICD (5.1/1000 device-year) had a higher incidence of infectious complications than other cardiac devices, and no infectious complications were observed among patients with CRT implantation. Mean duration from the time of implantation to infection was 2.02±1.65 years. In a multivariate analysis, the number of prior procedures including wound revision or scar revision was an independent risk factor for infectious complications (OR=10.88, 95% CI 1.11->999, p=0.040).
CONCLUSIONS: Infection was a rare complication of cardiac device implantation, but repeated procedures were associated with infectious complications.