Platycodin D Blocks Breast Cancer-Induced Bone Destruction by Inhibiting Osteoclastogenesis and the Growth of Breast Cancer Cells
Lee S.K. ; Park K.-K. ; Chung W.-Y. ; Kim Y.S. ; Yoon H. ; Kim Y.L. ; Kang E.J. ; Kim K.R. ; Kim H.-J.
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry, Vol.36(5) : 1809~1820, 2015
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
BACKGROUND: Metastatic breast cancer cells are frequently associated with osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, resulting in severe bone destruction and increased mortality in patients. Platycodin D (PD) isolated from Platycodon grandiflorum is a triterpenoid saponin with anti-cancer and anti-angiogenic potential.
METHODS: The in vivo activity was determined in mice with the intratibial injection of human metastatic breast cancer cells. Osteoclast formation and activity were detected using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining and calcium phosphate-coated plates. The expression of osteoclastogenesis-inducing molecules was detected by RT-PCR and western blotting in RANKL-treated bone marrow macrophages (BMMs). Cell viability and DNA synthesis were measured with MTT and BrdU incorporation assays. The induction of apoptosis was estimated using TUNEL staining and a caspase-3 activity assay.
RESULTS: The oral administration of PD inhibited MDA-MB-231 cell-induced osteolysis in an intratibial mouse model. PD treatment blocked RANKL-induced osteoclast formation by inhibiting the expression and nuclear translocation of NFATc1 and c-Fos in BMMs and consequently reduced osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Furthermore, PD treatment induced apoptosis in osteoclasts and inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231 cells.
CONCLUSION: PD may block breast cancer-induced bone loss by suppressing the formation, activity, and survival of osteoclasts, as well as the growth of metastatic breast cancer cells.