Pesticide exposure, oxidative stress, and metabolic syndrome among male farmers exposure to pesticide
농작업자에서의 농약노출 산화스트레스 , 대사증후군에 대한 연구
Dept. of Medicine/박사
Background and Objectives Pesticide exposure and accumulation in the human body significantly affect human health. Pesticide exposure results in the generation of reactive oxygen species in vitro and vivo, which in turn causes biomolecule oxidation, resulting in cell necrosis or tissue damage. Several studies have examined the relationship between oxidative stress and diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, and cancer. Therefore, the objective of this study was to measure malondialdehyde and isoprostane which has been used as an index of lipid injury, 8-OHdG, which has been used as an index of DNA damage, and dialkyl-phosphate, which has been used to quantify pesticide exposure, and to investigate the relationship among pesticide exposure, oxidative stress, and metabolic syndrome. Subjects and Methods This study was a cross-sectional study that evaluated 84 male farmers exposure to pesticide. In this study, 8-OHdG, isoprostane, and MDA were measured as oxidative stress indices, and dialkyl-phosphate(DMP, DEP, DMTP, and DETP) excreted in the urine was also measured to evaluate pesticide exposure. A logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationship among metabolic syndrome, oxidative stress biomarkers, and pesticide metabolites. In addition, a linear regression analysis was applied to determine the relationship between the oxidative stress and pesticide metabolites. Results The group with metabolic syndrome (19 subjects) had a higher concentration of oxidative biomarkers than the group without metabolic syndrome (65 subjects) (p < 0.05). The logistic regression analysis revealed a higher concentration of 8-OHdG (odds ratio 3.8, 95% CI 1.23–11.71), isoprostane (odds ratio 4.4, 95% CI 1.34–14.52), and MDA (odds ratio 6.0, 95% CI 1.28–27.69) in the group with metabolic syndrome than in the group without metabolic syndrome. A Correlation analysis was performed for PEI, CEI, and DAP as well as the concentration of the oxidative stress biomarkers. The PEM significantly and positively correlated to the levels of 8-OHdG, isoprostane, CEI, and DMP. CEI showed a correlation to 8-OHdG. DMP, DEP, and DETP showed a positive correlation to 8-OHdG, isoprostane, and MDA. A correlation analysis was adjusted some demographic characteristics, such as age, smoking, drinking, and exercise to determine the relationship between pesticide exposure and oxidative stress. The 8-OHdG, isoprostane, and MDA levels were significantly related to the DMP (ß = 0.320), DEP (ß = 0.390), and DETP (ß = 0.082); DMP (ß = 0.396), DEP (ß = 0.508), and DETP (ß = 0.504); and DMP (ß = 0.432), DEP (ß = 0.508), and DETP (ß = 0.329) levels, respectively. When the logistic regression results for the exposure indices (i.e., the dialkyl- phosphate levels and the PEM and CEI) were calibrated to account for age, smoking, drinking, and exercise, significant differences were observed between the groups with and without metabolic syndrome with respect to DMP (odds ratio 2.5, 95% CI 1.09–5.86) and DEP (odds ratio 5.0, 95% CI 1.62–15.52) levels. In addition, although the group with metabolic syndrome showed higher odds ratios for DMTP and DETP than the group without metabolic syndrome, there were no significant statistical differences in the odds ratios. Conclusion The concentration of oxidative stress biomarkers was higher in the group with metabolic syndrome than in the group without metabolic syndrome, and there was a positive correlation between the pesticide metabolites and oxidative stress biomarkers. Indicators of oxidative stress was associated with a pesticide metabolite DMP, DEP, and DETP. Therefore, Pesticide exposure and oxidative stress, metabolic syndrome were relevant.