The present study is concerned with angiographic findings of bone tumors in patients who have been admitted to Severance Hospital from April 1968 to March 1971.
Angiography of peripheral tumors is a valuable procedure in that it provides important information concerning the presence or absence of a tumor, defines its size and extent, and gives indication of malignancy.
Angiography as an additional aid in the diagnosis of malignant bone lesions was first presented by dos Santos, Lamas and Caldos(1931). Begg (1955) stated that a normal angiogram of a limb shows that the branches of the main artery follow a slightly curved and undulating course, and that their calibre slowly and
progressively decreases. None of these vessels are seen to reach the periosteum, nor is the nutrient artery ever visible. Dos Santos (1931) proposed certain angiographic criteria of malignancy, notably the presence of numerous irregular vessels at the transit of the contrast medium from the arteries to the veins. Margulis(1964) stated a large number of malignant neoplasms are highly vascular and present chaotic patterns. Their vessels have irregular lumina and arteriovenous communications are present within them.
Areas of intense contrast staining occupy parts of or the entire tumor. This appearance, frequently described, has been assumed to be characteristic of and uniformly encountered in malignant tumors. Angiographies in the present study include 6 cases of Osteogenic sarcoma, 4 cases of Chondrosareoma, 2 cases of Giant cell tumor 1 case of Liposarcoma, 1 case of Kaposi's sarcoma, 1 case of Hemangioma, 1 case of metastatic bone tumor, 1 case of Fibrous dysplasia and 1 case of Neurofibromatosis.
Angiography was performed 13 times under local and 5 times under the general anesthesis. 20 to 30cc of 50 per cent Hypaque was utilized for examination.
Angiographic findings are as follows:
1. Hypervascularity is soen inosteoganic sarcoma, giant cell tumor, hemangioma and metastatic bone tumor. But neurofibromatosis and fibrous dysplasia are avascular.
2. Irregularity of the vascular net work seems characteristic in osteogenic sarcoma, hemangioma, and metastatic bone tumor.
3. Blood pools are seen prominently in osteogenic sarcoma, giant cell tumor, hemangioma and metastatic bone tumor, but no blood pools in neurofibromatosis and fibrous dysplasia.
4. Arteriovenous shunt is seen in osteogenic sarcoma, chondrosarcoma, hemangiona and metastatic bone tumor. But there is no A-V shunt in giant cell tumor, liposarcoma, Kaposi's sarcoma, neurofibromatosis and fibrous dysplasia.
5. Retention of contrast medium is seen prominently in osteogenic sarcoma and hemangioma. But no retention of contrast medium is noted in liposarcoma, neurofibromatosis and fibrous dysplasia.
While Ⅰ do not regard arteriorgraphy as a necessary procedure for the differential diagnosis of all presumptive bone neoplasms, it is indeed valuable in selected cases, in differential diagnosis of bone tumors and in the demonstration of the vascularity and extent of extraosseous soft tissue masses and it can be helpful in selecting an appropriate biopsy site. By indicating the size and vascularity of a lesion and its major blood supply, it may influence the surgical approach.