It has commanded considerable scientific attention to define the mechanism of the hepatotoxicity of carbon tetrachloride.
One of the important new concepts elucidating the new mode of action ( hepatotoxicity ) of carbon tetrachloride is that the rough endoplasmic reticulum participates in protein synthesis, and that the alteration produced by carbon tetrachloride may be related with a defect in this process.
The following study presents an evidence that an, and perhaps initial, manifestation of carbon tetrachloride is the altered relationshop of the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles to the membranes of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and associated with an impairment of protein synthesis within the cells.
Animals used in this study were 55 healthy male albine mice (A-atrain) weighing 20 gm.
CCl^^2 intoxication was produced by subcutaneous injection of 2:3 mixture of CCl^^2 and olive oil at a single dose of 0.25 ml of the mixture per 100gm. of body weight. Control mice were injected 0.25ml of olive oil per 100 gm, of body weight.
Animals were sacrificed by a sharp blow to the head at time intervals of 1, 2, 3 and 6 hours following treatment.
Small pieces of the liver were fixed under the Lillie fixatives for 24 hours and either embedded in paraffin blocks or cut with the freezing microtome.
Paraffin sections were stained with Hematoxylin eosin, Methylgreen pyronin ( Rosa method, 1950) and oil red O.
The hepatic lesion induced with CCl^^2 had the characteristics of cloudy swelling, fatty change and decreasing pyroninophilia in the hepatic cells of 3 hour group in the central area of the lobule, although any noticeable lesions were not observed in 1 and 2 hour group.
By 6 hours, there were severe fatty changes, sinusoidal congestion and appearance of ballooned cells and profound diminution of pyroninophilia in the central area and mid zone.
From the results, the early morphological alteration due to carbon tetrachloride intoxication, consisting of dislocation and diminution of RNA, may suggest the possibility of damages to protein synthesis.