Today, over seventy five percent of the schools of nursing in Korea provide a psychiatric experience in the basic curriculum. The psychiatric affiliation presents numerous major problems of adjustment to the student. The importance of positive attitudes toward the nursing care of psychiatric patients is recognized by the nursing profession.
The purpose of this study was to determine the expressed attitudes of fifty-three nursing students toward their psychiatric affiliation. An attempt, also, was made to determine what implications these attitudes revealed relative to future program planing for students during the psychiatric nursing affiliation.
A questionnaire, a Korean translation of the "psychiatric Nursing Attitude Questionnaire" by Mildred Elizabeth Fletcher, was administered to fifty-three nursing students form three schools of nursing in Seoul, Who had completed a four-week psychiatric affiliation in a large mental hospital during Mar.19,1997 to May 19,1973.
The questionnaire of 100 statements was administered in the following way; (!)
Part Ⅰ, Preconceptions, was given in individual conferences with each subject, during the first few days of their affiliation, and again duing the final week of the affiliation.
The responses to Part Ⅰ were oral. (2) Part Ⅱ, Expectations, Part Ⅲ, Personal Relations, Part Ⅳ, Personal Feelings, and Part Ⅴ, Attitudes and Activities of Patients were given to all of the subjects in a group meeting during the second week of the affiliation, and again, during the fourth week at the termination of the affiliation,. Responses to Parts Ⅱ, Ⅲ, Ⅳ, and Ⅴ were written.
Each of the 100 statements of the questionnaire was considered to be either Positive or Negative. A favorable response was assigned the Positive value of +1, and an unfavorable response was assigned the Negative value of 0.
The coefficient of correlation was computed between the two sets of scores for the fifty-three nursing students. The mean score, the standard deviation, and the differences in the means on each of the five parts of the questionnaire were computed and the relationships calculated by a t-test.
The results of the study were as follows :
1. There was no significant correlation between the two sets of scores for the fifty-three nursing students during the four-week psychiatric affiliation.(r=.573)
2. There was no significant difference in the mean scores between the first and final tests for any of the five parts of the questionnaire.
3. The PartⅠ, Preconceptions, data indicated nursing students enter the psychiatric affiliation with certain attitudes and preconceptions toward the psychiatric affiliation which affect their psychiatric nursing experience.
4. The PartⅡ, Expectations, data indicated inappropriate expectations of students related to lack of experience, lack of pre-psychiatric affiliation orientation, lack of social understanding, and feelings of insecurity.
5. The PartⅢ, Personal relations, data indicated some students have negative attitudes in personal relations with normal people in respect to psychological security and social responsibilities.
6. The Part Ⅳ, Personal feelings, data indicated nursing students have psychological insecurity & inappropriateness.
7. The PartⅤ, Attitudes and activities of patients, data indicated nursing students have negative attitudes of feer and frustration due to the psycholtic behavior of certain patients in certain situations.
8. The data indicated preconceptions are predominate in unfavorable attitudes of students toward psychiatric nursing affiliation. Further research is indicated in the following areas :
1. Because of the limited number of students in this study, similar studies should be performed with larger groups for further validation of the results.
2. Because of the findings concerning the influence of the opinions of people in close contact with the students, similar studies of the attitudes of the staff in nursing schools, attitudes of graduate nurses and attitudes of the public should be done to determine weakness and strengths of present programs.