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인천시의 지역별 부유분진에 관한 조사 연구 : 입경분포 및 중금속농도를 중심으로

Title
 인천시의 지역별 부유분진에 관한 조사 연구 : 입경분포 및 중금속농도를 중심으로 
Other Titles
 (A) research on the characteristics of the suspended particulate by area in Inchon city 
Issue Date
1991
Publisher
 연세대학교 보건대학원 
Description
환경관리학과/석사
Abstract
[한글] 인위적 원인에 기인되어져 발생되는 입자상 물질등은 산업지역이나 도시 지역에서는 제한된 지역에서 많은 시간내에 다량 발생하므로 대기중의 농도가 급격히 증가하여 인체 및 동식물에 큰 영향을 미치게 된다. 우리나라에서는 부유분진중 인체에 유해한 것으로 알려진 호기성분진(respirable dust)에 대한 규제를 실시하지 못하고있는 실정으로 총부유분진(total suspended particulates)을 대상으로 하고 있다. 이러한 부유분진에 의한 대기오염 실태를 파악하는데 있어서 부유분진의 농도, 화학적 조성, 입경분포등에 관해서도 유기적인 고찰을 실시하여 그중 유해성물질에 대한 건강상 유해성평가(risk assessement)가 이루어져야 할 것이다. 본 연구에서는 높은 인구밀도와 공업 및 수도권도시인 인천지역을 중심으로 주거지역, 상업지역, 공업지역으로 구분하여 대기 부유분진의 농도, 입도별분포, 중금속 7종에 대한 오염도를 조사분석하였다. 부유분진은 high volume air sampler로, 입도별분포는 입경분포측정기에 의해서, 중금속은 atomic absorption spectrophoter로 각각 측정하였으며, 조사기간은 1989-1990년 5월 11월 각 월별 1회씩 6개 시료채취지점에서 실시하였다. 1. 지역별 T S P의 평균농도는 주거지역에서 165.56μg/m**3, 상업지역에서 228.88μg/m**3, 공업지역에서 238.95μg/m**3로 나타나 환경기준치 연 평균 150μg/m**3보다는 높았으나 1일 평균 300μg/m**3보다는 낮았다. 오염지역별 순위로는 공업지역 > 상업지역 > 주거지역 순이었으며 각 지역별 평균 T S P는 202±36μg/m**3, 조사범위로는 209±66μg/m**3로 나타났다. 또한 각 년도에서 5월 보다 11월에 오염도가 높은 것으로 나타나 난방기의 오염도가 비 난방기에 비하여 T S P애 미치는 영향이 더 컸다. 2. Stage 구분상 2.1μm이하의 미세입자와 2.1μm이상의 조대입자로 구분하여 주거지역에서 미세입자가 6:4로 큰 분포를, 상업지역에서 미세입자가 7:3의 우세한 비율로, 공업지역에서 미세입자가 6:4의 분포를 나타내어 각 지역 모두 인위적인 발생요인이 많을 것으로 사료된다. 3. 미세입자가 T S P에 기여하는 정도를 미세입자 분율로 나타내었는데 각 지역 모두에서 최저 0.45(45%) 최고 0.67(67%) 까지로 나타나 T S P에 대하여 1/2이상의 페포 침착성 분진의 분포를 보였다. 4. 대기중 T S P의 입도 분포율을 조사한 결과 각 지역 모두에서 0.43μm이하의 입자에서 가장 크게 나타났다. 전 지역에서 0 43μm이하의 범위는 32.38∼44.62%로 나타나 극히 미세한 입자의 분포가 주를 이루었다. 5. T S P에 대한 입도별 분포에서는 각 지역 모두 0.43μm이하에서 1개의 peak와 상업·공업지역에서는 3.3 < 4.7μm에서, 주거지역에서는 2.1 < 3.3μm에서 peak를 이루어 각각 2개의 봉을 형성하였다. 6. Stage 구분상 11μm이하의 입자 크기를 호기성분진으로 적응하여 지역별 호기성 분진 결과에서는 주거지역에서 93.48%, 상업지역 96.16%, 공업지역 91.24%로 나타나 호기성 분진에 대한 비호기성분진의 비는 10.4∼25.0까지로 매우 높은 분포를 보였는데 이는 포집범위를 11μm의 입자 크기를 기준으로 조사한 결과였다. 7. T S P중의 중금속 농도에서는 전 조사기간동안 Pb 0.17∼0.51μg/m**3, Cu 0.18∼0.55μg/m**3, Mn 0.08∼0.32μg/m**3, Cr·Cd은 같은 농도로 N·D(Negative detective)∼0.015μg/m**3, Fe 0.92∼3.84μg/m**3, Zn 0.43∼2.49μg/m**3로 나타나 중금속별 오염도는 Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb > Mn > Cd·Cr순으로 높게 나타났다. 지역별 중금속 조사결과는 주거지역에서 Fe 1.67μg/m**3, Zn 0.86μg/m**3, Cu 0.22μg/m**3. Pb 0.25μg/m**3, Mn 0.13μg/m**3, Cd 0.004μg/m**3, Cr 0.05μg/m**3로 나타났으며, 상업지역에서는 Fe 1.92μg/m**3, Zn 1.4μg/m**3, Cu 0.25μg/m**3, Pb 0.36μg/m**3, Mn 0.13μg/m**3, Cd 0.007μg/m**3, Cr 0.007μg/m**3으로, 공업지역에서 Fe 1.93μg/m**3, Zn 1.59μg/m**3, Cu 0.30μg/m**3, Pb 0.26μg/m**3, Mn 0.17μg/m**3, Cd 0.008μg/m**3, Cr 0.007μg/m**3으로 나타나 지역별 중금속 농도로는 공업지역 > 상업지 역 > 주거지역 순으로 높게 나타났다. 8. '89년도 '90년도의 중금속 오염도 추이현상에서는 Cr·Cd·Mn에서는 거의 동일한 오염도를 보였으나 Pb 및 Cu에서는 점차 증가하는 현상을 나타내어 자동차의 증가와 각종 산업장의 증설에 주요원인으로 기인되어 진다. 이상 결과로 보아 인천지역은 대기 부유분진의 오염도는 높았으며 그 중 특정한 중금속 오염도가 역시 높으며, 호기성 부유분진의 분포가 많아 이에 대한 건강상 유해성이 평가되어져야 한다. A Research on the Characteristics of the Suspended Particulate by Area in Inchon City - With Special Reference to the Size Distribution of Suspended Particles and the Concentration of Heavy Metals - HAN, IN SOO Dept. of Environment Science, Graduate School of Health, Science and Management, Yonsei University (Directed by Prof, Sook Pyo, Kwon, Ph.D) The particulate matters caused antificially are mass-gererated in a short time within the limited regions of industirial or urban area, and therefore, the concentration of them in the atmosphere sharply increases, affecting seriously the human body as well as animals and plants. In our nation, the fact is that the respirable dusts among the suspended particulate known as harmful to the human body are not under regulation specifically, but total suspended particulate is regulated. In identifying the realities of air pollution by the suspended particulate, the concentration, chemical components and size distribution of the suspended particulated should be examined regularly, and health risk assessment of micropollutants in it should be made. This study in Incheon area analyzed the concentration of the suspended particulate, size distribution, pollution level of 7 sorts of heavy metals, around high populated or industrial areas and also in the Metropolitan area classified of residential region, commercial region and industrial region. The suspended particulate was measured by the high volume air sampler, the size distribution, by measuring instrument of size distribution, and the heavy matals, by the atomic absorption spectre-photometer, respectively. The investigation was implemented4 times in May and November in 1989 and 1990. Results of the study are as follows: 1. The regional average concentration of T S P(Total Suspended Particulate) appeared as 165.56μg/m**3 in residential region, 228.88μg/m**3 in commercial region and 238.95μg/m**3 in industrial region, and these results were higher than the annual nation-wide environmental standard (150μg/m**3), however, lower than the daily standard (300μg/m**3). The order of air polluion level from the highest showed as Industrial Region >Commercial Region >Residential Region. Also, pollution level was higher in November than in May, the influence of heating systems on air pollution was more significant than that of cooling systems. 2. Particles were classified into fine particles whose diameter were less than 2.1 μm and coarse particles whose diameter were more than 2.1μm. Distributive ratio of fine particles to coarse particles was 6:4 in residential region. And that of fine particles and coarse particles in the commercial rigion was 7:3, and that in the industrial region was 6:4. With above results, all the regions-the residential, commercial and industrial-can be assumed to hale artificial factors to cause the harmful suspended particutate. 3. The degree of fine particles's contributes to T S P was, in its percentage, the lowest, 45%, and the highest, 67%, in all regions. 4. In Results of having investigated the distribution of T S P with reference to the size of the particulate, its proportion was significant in the size of the particlate, less than 0.43μm(a diameter). The range of the particulate less than 0.43μm in the whole region was between 32.38% and 44.62%, this fact showed that extremly minute(fine) particles dominantly occupied in the whole region. 5. In a distribution curve of T S P, each region showed a peak with the particulate less than 0.43μm diameter, commercial and industrial regional each showed a peak with the particulate of 3.3<4.7μm, the residential region, a peak with the particulate of 2.1<3.3μm, and so, at the regions each showed two peaks. 6. Particles less than its diameter, 11μm was regarded or applied to respirable dust, and in results of respirable dust among areas, 93.48% showed in the residential region, 96.16% in the commercial region, and 91.24% in the industrial region, and the proportion of non-respirable dust to respirable dust was 10.4-25.0, which was avery high distribution, and, all such data were based on the particle of its diameter, 11μm. 7. The concentration of heavy metals in T S P throughout the investigation period was as follows: Pb 0.17 - 0.51μg/m**3, Cu 0.18 - 0.55 μg/m**3, Mn 0.08 - 0.32μg/m**3, a same concentration for Cr and Cd-ND(Negative Detective) 0.015μg/m**3, Fe 0.92 - 3.84μg/m**3, Zn 0.43 - 2.49μg/m**3, and so, the order of the pollution level for each heavy metals was Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb > Mn> Cd·Cr. Findings from the investigation of heavy metals for each region were as follows in the resisdential region, Fe 1.67μg/m**3, Zn 0.86μg/m**3, Cu 0.22μg/m**3, Pb 0.25μg/m**3, Mn 0.13μg/m**3, Cd 0.004μg/m**3, Cr 0.005μg/m**3, in the commercial region, Fe 1.92μg/m**3, Zn 1.4μg/m**3, Cu 0.25μg/m**3, Pb 0.36μg/m**3, Mn 0.13μg/m**3, Cd 0.007μg/m**3, Cr 0.007μg/m**3, in the industrial region, Fe 1.93μg/m**3, Zn 1.59μg/m**3, Cu 0.30μg/m**3, Pb 0.26μg/m**3, Mn 0.17μg/m**3, Cd 0.008μg/m**3, and Cr 0.007μg/m**3. Based on such data, the order of the concentration of heavy metals for each region would be industrial > commertial > residential region. 8. Concerning the change of the pollution level of heavy metals in the period on investigation, 1989 and 1990, heavy metals, Cr, Cd and Mn showed a nearly same pollution level, however Pb and Cu a gradually increasing tendency, which was considered to be caused mainly for the increase of the number of automobiles and various industrial facilities. Therefore, the pollution level of suspended particulates in the air of Inchon area was high, and also, heavy metals Because of the considerable suspended dusts in this area, it must be considered to assess the hamfulness to human health caused by respirable dust continuously in the future.
[영문] The particulate matters caused antificially are mass-gererated in a short time within the limited regions of industirial or urban area, and therefore, the concentration of them in the atmosphere sharply increases, affecting seriously the human body as well as animals and plants. In our nation, the fact is that the respirable dusts among the suspended particulate known as harmful to the human body are not under regulation specifically, but total suspended particulate is regulated. In identifying the realities of air pollution by the suspended particulate, the concentration, chemical components and size distribution of the suspended particulated should be examined regularly, and health risk assessment of micropollutants in it should be made. This study in Incheon area analyzed the concentration of the suspended particulate, size distribution, pollution level of 7 sorts of heavy metals, around high populated or industrial areas and also in the Metropolitan area classified of residential region, commercial region and industrial region. The suspended particulate was measured by the high volume air sampler, the size distribution, by measuring instrument of size distribution, and the heavy matals, by the atomic absorption spectre-photometer, respectively. The investigation was implemented4 times in May and November in 1989 and 1990. Results of the study are as follows: 1. The regional average concentration of T S P(Total Suspended Particulate) appeared as 165.56μg/m**3 in residential region, 228.88μg/m**3 in commercial region and 238.95μg/m**3 in industrial region, and these results were higher than the annual nation-wide environmental standard (150μg/m**3), however, lower than the daily standard (300μg/m**3). The order of air polluion level from the highest showed as Industrial Region >Commercial Region >Residential Region. Also, pollution level was higher in November than in May, the influence of heating systems on air pollution was more significant than that of cooling systems. 2. Particles were classified into fine particles whose diameter were less than 2.1 μm and coarse particles whose diameter were more than 2.1μm. Distributive ratio of fine particles to coarse particles was 6:4 in residential region. And that of fine particles and coarse particles in the commercial rigion was 7:3, and that in the industrial region was 6:4. With above results, all the regions-the residential, commercial and industrial-can be assumed to hale artificial factors to cause the harmful suspended particutate. 3. The degree of fine particles's contributes to T S P was, in its percentage, the lowest, 45%, and the highest, 67%, in all regions. 4. In Results of having investigated the distribution of T S P with reference to the size of the particulate, its proportion was significant in the size of the particlate, less than 0.43μm(a diameter). The range of the particulate less than 0.43μm in the whole region was between 32.38% and 44.62%, this fact showed that extremly minute(fine) particles dominantly occupied in the whole region. 5. In a distribution curve of T S P, each region showed a peak with the particulate less than 0.43μm diameter, commercial and industrial regional each showed a peak with the particulate of 3.3<4.7μm, the residential region, a peak with the particulate of 2.1<3.3μm, and so, at the regions each showed two peaks. 6. Particles less than its diameter, 11μm was regarded or applied to respirable dust, and in results of respirable dust among areas, 93.48% showed in the residential region, 96.16% in the commercial region, and 91.24% in the industrial region, and the proportion of non-respirable dust to respirable dust was 10.4-25.0, which was avery high distribution, and, all such data were based on the particle of its diameter, 11μm. 7. The concentration of heavy metals in T S P throughout the investigation period was as follows: Pb 0.17 - 0.51μg/m**3, Cu 0.18 - 0.55 μg/m**3, Mn 0.08 - 0.32μg/m**3, a same concentration for Cr and Cd-ND(Negative Detective) 0.015μg/m**3, Fe 0.92 - 3.84μg/m**3, Zn 0.43 - 2.49μg/m**3, and so, the order of the pollution level for each heavy metals was Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb > Mn> Cd·Cr. Findings from the investigation of heavy metals for each region were as follows in the resisdential region, Fe 1.67μg/m**3, Zn 0.86μg/m**3, Cu 0.22μg/m**3, Pb 0.25μg/m**3, Mn 0.13μg/m**3, Cd 0.004μg/m**3, Cr 0.005μg/m**3, in the commercial region, Fe 1.92μg/m**3, Zn 1.4μg/m**3, Cu 0.25μg/m**3, Pb 0.36μg/m**3, Mn 0.13μg/m**3, Cd 0.007μg/m**3, Cr 0.007μg/m**3, in the industrial region, Fe 1.93μg/m**3, Zn 1.59μg/m**3, Cu 0.30μg/m**3, Pb 0.26μg/m**3, Mn 0.17μg/m**3, Cd 0.008μg/m**3, and Cr 0.007μg/m**3. Based on such data, the order of the concentration of heavy metals for each region would be industrial > commertial > residential region. 8. Concerning the change of the pollution level of heavy metals in the period on investigation, 1989 and 1990, heavy metals, Cr, Cd and Mn showed a nearly same pollution level, however Pb and Cu a gradually increasing tendency, which was considered to be caused mainly for the increase of the number of automobiles and various industrial facilities. Therefore, the pollution level of suspended particulates in the air of Inchon area was high, and also, heavy metals Because of the considerable suspended dusts in this area, it must be considered to assess the hamfulness to human health caused by respirable dust continuously in the future.
URI
http://ir.ymlib.yonsei.ac.kr/handle/22282913/117329
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2. 학위논문 > 4. Graduate School of Public Health (보건대학원) > 석사
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