There have been some reports concerning physical and mental retardation due to parasite infestations. Namizaki et al.(1933) found that there was retardation in development of body weight, body length and circumference of chest in the hookworm patients.
Maruta(1957) and Nagamura(1959) reported that muscle power decreased in hookworm patients. Smillie et al.(1926) and several workers observed school children infested with hookworm had mental retardation as compared with the noninfested group. Washburn(1925) found a high correlation between scholastic ability and degree of hookworm infestation.
In regard to the nutritional state in parasite infestation, Kim(1964) found that the plasma level of vitamin A in Clonorchis sinensis infected rabbits continued at a lower level than in the noninfested group. Kim(1966) reported the reason for vitamin A deficiency in the Clonorchis sinensis infestation cases in due to the decrease of storage ability of the liver and the rapid excretion by the kidney, and not due to the poor absorption of vitamin A from the intestinal wall. However, Park(1968) reported that parasite infestation in digestive system diminished the fat absorption of the gastrointestinal tract of the host.
Even though hookworm and Clonorchis sinensis are among the main human parasites in Korea, there have been no reports on the physical and mental development of the person infected with these parasites. The present study was designed to investigate the physical fitness and strength, mental development and nutritional state of the patients infected with Anoylostoma duodenale and Clonorchis sinensis.
Materials and Methods
Studies were carried out in Ik-San Gun, Chollapukdo province and Goyang Gun, Kyungki province which have been known as endemic areas for Clonorchis sinensis and hookworm. Single infection cases of the respective parasite were sampled for this study, and the non-parasite infection cases were used as control.
Incidence and worm burden determined by formalin-ether concentration technique and Stoll's dilution egg counting method. Physical and mental examination of the groups were checked by the following means:
1. Physical measurement of
Body weight by Weight Balance
Body length by Anthropometer
Ciroumference of the chest by tape measure
Ciroumference of the Brachium by tape measure
Hand Grip by Hand-Grip dynamometer
Back lift strength by Back dynamometer
Physical and Nutritional Indices were calculated using the above methods.
2. Mental test was performed with the manual designed by the Institute of Educational Psychology of the College of Education, Seoul National University.
3. Clinical examination and evaluation of the Nutritional status was carried out mainly by inspection.
The number of cases for the present studies were 56 cases of hookworm infestation, 64 cases of clonorchis sinensis infestation and 113 parasite free cases. The E.P.G. of the hookworm cases were 100 - 400 (median 200) and the clonorchiasis cases were 100 - 45400 (median 1000) respectively, and were regarded as light infection group.
1. Back lift strength was decreased in clonorchiasis cases as compared to the parasite free group, and Hand Grip also tended to decrease in hookworm and clonorchiasis cases.
2. Physical and Nutritional Indices did not differ between hookworm cases and parasite free group. In clonorchiasis cases Quetelet and Rohrer indices were low, but Brugsch and Oppenheimer indices did not differ from the parasite free group.
3. Distribution of I Q score between hookworm case and the parasite free group did not reveal a difference.
4. Clinical manifestation of various vitamin deficiencies were observed in both hookworm and clonorchiasis cases.
The survey showed that physical retardation was found in clonorchiasis cases, and nutritional status was poor in both hookworm and clonorchiasis cases.