Studies on congenital malformation among 11, 653 deliveries in Korea
Modern medical science has been developed rapidly in the past century, but congenital anomalies are one of the major medical and social problems. Physicians have been trying to exclude possible factors of congenital malformations by better antenatal care. Congenital malformations known as a major cause of neonatal death. However, the general incidence of congenital anomalies is still not known in Korea.
In 1954, McIntosh reported the incidence of congenital malformations among 5,739 deliveries was 7.5 per cent. In 1964, Marden found 2.0 per cent of the babies had major defects and 14.7 per cent had at least on minor anomaly. This survey was
conducted in an effort to know the general incidence of congenital malformations in Korea. During the period of 3 years, from Jan. 1, 1970 until Dec. 31, 1972 11→653 deliveries were studied at Severance Hospital, Won Ju Christian Hospital, and Jun
Ju Presbyterian Hospital.
The infants were examined on the first, second, and third hospital day. Over a period of 6 months, the infants were followed up at out patient and well baby clinic. As a diagnostic procedure, inspection, palpation, auscultation, radiologic study, chromosome study, and autopsy were performed.
The results of these observations were as follows;
1. The incidence of congenital malformations among 11,653 deliveries was 6.8 percent.
The incidence (8.4%) of malformed babies among 6,090 male deliveries was almost twice those of 5,563 female deliveries (5.0%).
Among 793 malformed babies, 65 per cent were males, and 35 per cent were females.
2. 9.1 per cent of infant weighing 2,500 gm or less showed defects compared with 6.5 per cent of those weighing over 2,500 gm.
3. Maternal age and birth order did not show any correlation with the incidence of congenital malformation.
4. Of 793 malformed babies, 12.1 per cent had more than one malformation. Among 907 malformations, 277 malformations (30.5%) were in gastrointestinal system, 171 malformations (18.9%) in the urogenital system and 135 malformations(14.9%) in the skin.
Malformations of the gastrointestinal system and the urogenital system were more frequent than those of other systems.
5. Among 11,653 deliveries, 320 babies (2.7%) had major malformations and 473 babies (4.1%) had minor malformations.
6. 88 babies (11.1%) among 793 malformed babies died.
7. A total of 11,109 babies lived over 4 weeks and of these 714 (6.4%) were malformed.
A total of 288 babies died within 4 weeks and of these 71 (24.7%) were malformed, of these 71 babies 40 (13.9%) died due to the congenital malformation itself.
A total of 286 babies died in utero and of these 17 (5.9%) were malformed.
As a cause of neonatal death, congenital malformations showed an important role.