Diethyl ether was first described by Valerius Cordus in 1540, and it is generally
agreed that Crawford Long used ether for 3 surgical patients in 1842, and Morton
subsequently gave a definitive public demonstration in Boston in October, 1846.
After this, ether used became widely published and the news spread to London, where
Drs. Boot and Squires soon used it on surgical cases at University College
Hospital. The importance and volume of diethyl other in the anesthesia field grew
day by day and year by year after Crawford Long and Morton, and it is widely used
by various techniques.
But, during the past decade, the frequency of usage of diethyl ether has declined
and it is now hard to find new articles on diethyl ether. The reason is that the
experience of induction is most unpleasant and stormy with secretions, vomiting and
laryngospas also, excessive depth is often produced and in the post operative
course, headache, nausea, vomiting, and fluid or electrolyte disorders may follow.
Another reason is the production of various new inhalation anesthetics.
Today, many serious complications of new anesthetics are report especially
halothane may have a hepato-sensitive effect (Burnap 1958 Virtus 1958, Barton 1959,
Temple 1962, and Bunker 1963), and new recent articles about ether were published
by McArdle (1968), Oyama (1969) and Markello (1969).
It should also be remembered that, although its use in clinical practice in
Britain and other western parts is now almost as limited as chloroform, ether is
still the main inhalational anesthetic in many parts of the world, because diethyl
ether is an excellent anesthetic safer and perhaps more inexpensive than any other.
since diethyl ether has recently been produced in Korea, objectives of the study
were mainly reevaluation of the effects of diethyl ether through experimental
Nine healthy normal dogs weighing approximately 10 kg. body weight were employed
in this experiment and 4 dogs anesthetized with Squibb ether and 5 dogs with Korea
made ether, were used for the study. Endotrachcal intubation was done under light
sedation with pentobarbital sodium 30 mg/kg I.V. and the tube connected with a
Ruben valve; Nonrebreathing system which could be applied 023 to 0.5L/min. through
the Heidbrink Ohio Chemical Anesthesia Aparatus without any anesthetics.
Cannulations were applied into the right jugular vein for C.V.P, into the femoral
artery for arterial pressure, the femoral vein for fluid infusion which contained
Inulin and B.S.P. (priming doses were 50mg/kg and 5mg/kg and maintenance doses were
0.25mg/kg/min. and 0.05mg/kg/min.) using the Harvard infusion pump (2 ml/min.), the
other femoral artery for blood sampling, both ureters for urine collection, and the
common bile duct for bile collection.
A Polygraph Grass Type 4 Channel Machine was connected for E.E.G., E.C.G,, C.V.P.
and arterial pressure.
During the whole of the study, E.E.G., E.C.G., arterial pressure, C.V.P. and
arterial blood sampling for PaCO^^2, PaO^^2, pH and hemoglobin, and urine
collection for Inulin clearance, and bile collection for B.S.P. clearance, was done
every 20 minutes through a 4 hours (one hour for the pre-anesthetic period, two
hours for the anesthesia period, and one hour for the post-anesthetic period).
Arterial blood gas, and pH were analyzed with a Radiometer, hemoglobin by the
hemophotometer, Inulin clearance by the Schreiner method, and B.S.P. clearance by
the Pitt aceton method.
After the post-anesthetic period, tissue specimens; the heart, lung, liver and
kidney, were fixed in 10% formalin and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and PAS.
stain for histopathological study. Result and Summary
An E.C.G. tracing with pulse rate, arterial pressure, and C.V.P. were not changed
significantly during ether anesthesia in dogs.
Within the first 60 minutes during other anesthesia, PaO^^2 were elevated but
after that gradually declined until post-anesthetic period. PaCO^^2, pH and
hemoglobin values did not show any remarkable change in all experiments.
B.S.P. and Inulin clearances during ether anesthesia were decreased but recovered
slightly in the post-anesthetic period.
Histopathologically, in a few dogs, a slight alveolar edema, capillary
congestion, alveolar wall thickening, mucosal degeneration, destruction of
bronchioles in the lung and glomcrular ischemic changes in the kidney were observe.
No other pathological findings in the heart and liver were found.